Toyokuni III Utagawa, Nakamura Shikan, Five Festivals
Artist: Toyokuni III Utagawa (1786-1865)
Title: Nakamura Shikan as Yayoi no Hinataro
Series: Handsome Street Knights for the Five Festivals
Publisher: Ebisuya Shoshichi
Size: 24.5 x 36.2 cm
Original Japanese woodblock print.
During the Edo Period, the samurai class had yet to adjust to the daily routine of peacetime and grew frustrated with the loss of status and usefulness. Bored and idle, they frequently caused trouble in towns and were involved in street fights and robbery. At the same time, the commoner otokodate (street knights) were gaining confidence in their strength among the merchants and they were employed by clerks, shopkeepers, innkeepers, and artisans for protection. The samurai and the otokodate were thus natural rivals, and as each group banded together into teams under leaders, fierce and bloody clashes broke out frequently.
Otokodate were also icons of fashion and followed the latest trends. In this series, Toyokuni III compares famous kabuki actors of the day with legendary otokodate. Their clothes are adorned with rich patterns referring to traditional Japanese festivals and they carry swords and shakuhachi, a flute that was often seen carrying by street knights and a symbol of defiance towards authorities and the government.
Nakamura Shikan is seen weaking a kimono with symbols for Hina Matsuri. Celebrated on 3rd of March of each year, families with daughters display ornamental dolls (hina-ningyo) representing the Emperor, Empress, attendants, and musicians in traditional court dress of the Heian period.
Toyokuni III Utagawa (Kunisada I) (1786 - 1864)
Kunisada I Utagawa was a prolific woodblock print artist mostly known for his pictures of beautiful women (bijinga) and kabuki actors prints (yakusha-e). Born in Edo (today’s Tokyo), he became a pupil of Toyokuni I Utagawa (1769-1825) at the age of 15 and would later adopt his name in the traditional Japanese manner, becoming Toyokuni III and continuing the development of the Utagawa art school.
Kunisada’s pictures reflect the culture of Japan in the years leading up to the country’s opening to the West. His first book illustrations were published in 1807 and his first actor portrait the following year. Alongside theatrical scenes and courtesans, yakusha-e was his preferred genre amidst all his popular and extensive output. As he painted a large number of these, continuing the stout realism of his teacher, he acquired the nickname ‘Yakusha-e no Kunisada’ – Kunisada, the actor painter. In his numerous bijinga he clung to the ideal of beauty prevalent at the time. Most of the women portrayed were courtesans from Yoshiwara, the regulated red-light district of the city.
In 1820s Kunisada joined author Ryutei Tanehiko (1783-1842) to work on illustrating a series of books based on the classical novel ‘The Tale of Genji’, the reinterpreted story having been relocated from the old capital of Kyoto to the new audience in Edo. The work started a new ukiyo-e genre, genji-e, and proved an overnight success, becoming the first Japanese publication to sell over 10,000 copies, a record which stood for many years.
Kunisada gave his audience an escape from the restrictions of their ordinary lives and his designs, with their optimism and energy, still have the capacity today to attract and entertain. Notable students of Kunisada included Kunichika Toyohara, Sadahide Utagawa and Kunisada II Utagawa.
|Print Format||Oban (Vertical)|
|Artist||Toyokuni III Utagawa (Kunisada I) (1786 - 1864)|
|Subject||Samurai & Male, Kabuki Theatre, Kimono Design|
|Size||24.5 x 36.2 cm|