Yoshitoshi Tsukioka, Zhang Fei, The Romance of Three Kingdoms


Artist: Yoshitoshi Tsukioka (1839-1892)
Title: Zhang Fei at Changban Bridge
Series: Essays by Yoshitoshi
Publisher: Dobashi Masadaya
Date: 1872
Dimensions: 24.8 x 36.8 cm

Original Japanese woodblock print.

The battle is that of Changban. Fought in China 208 AD, the conflict was part of the wars that marked the Three Kingdoms Period (220–280 AD) that were later immortalised by the great Chinese epic, The Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Zhang Fei stands guarding the Changban Bridge alone. After granting his comrade Zhao Yun and young A'dou passage, he intimidatingly awaits the large enemy force in their pursuit. Face to face with the opposing generals, Zhang Fei releases a roaring battle cry challenging the men to try and cross the bridge unharmed. A military officer collapses and dies. Not through a physical battle wound, but from the overwhelming aura and power emanating from Zhang Fei who surely seemed closer to a demon than a man.


Yoshitoshi shows the seasoned warrior at the moment of letting out his awful yell: his jaws are open wide with the flesh of his mouth highlighted in a deep blood red. The lighter highlights of the horse he rides reveals its strikingly muscular frame. Yoshitoshi masterfully employs the compositional kiri [lit. cut] here, with Zhang Fei's spear slicing across the design and the enemies he shocks to death entirely out of sight, subjecting the viewer to the warrior and his steed's immense presence.

Yoshitoshi Tsukioka (1839 - 1892)

Yoshitoshi Tsukioka was one of the leading woodblock print artists during the Meiji era (1868-1912) and one of the last to work in the traditional ukiyo-e manner. Born in Edo (today’s Tokyo), he showed a strong interest in classical Japanese literature and history. When he was 11, he became a student at Kuniyoshi Utagawa’s studio. Under his teacher’s guidance, he showed exquisite draftsmanship and learned how to draw from life, something not necessarily part of the training schools of painting and illustration in Japan.

Yoshitoshi’s rise as an artist came at a time when Japan was faced with great changes and challenges. The new Meiji era (1868-1912) brought many conflicts between those loyal to tradition and those wishing to embark on a process of forced modernisation and adoption of western values. These sentiments, along with having witnessed some of the violent uprisings, influenced his early career, with intense, often disturbing images that reflect turmoil and pain. Even so, many other prints from this early period show whimsical touches, with reinterpretation of themes seen in his teacher Kuniyoshi’s works. With deep cultural roots, Yoshitoshi’s style was dynamic and distinctive: he was known for experimentation in style and genre, as well as for his innovative works. He worked on series depicting kabuki actors, bijinga (pictures of beautiful women), warriors, monsters and ghosts. Supernatural themes abound in his later work, showing a fascination for old Japanese folk stories.

The publishing of Yoshitoshi’s most popular series 'One Hundred Aspects of the Moon' commenced in 1885 and spanned a wide variety of subjects, such as warrior, animals, ghosts, natural phenomena, beauties and others. The artist’s early tendency for gore and horror was replaced by images of lyricism, calm, spirituality and psychological depth. 'Thirty-two Aspects of Customs and Manners', published in 1888, shows Yoshitoshi’s ability to portray emotions like no other artist of his time, presenting women of various background and eras in Japanese history, each with distinct traits.

In 1889, the series 'New Forms of Thirty-six Ghosts' started to be published, showing images of apparitions, mostly based on folklore and plays, depicted powerfully and imaginatively. This was, perhaps, a catharsis for the artist who claimed to have seen ghosts and strongly believed in supernatural beings. Many of Yoshitoshi’s late works were acclaimed at a time when western techniques of mass production such as photography were making the woodblock obsolete, breaking new ground by portraying intense human feelings through a traditional medium. He became a master teacher and had notable pupils such as Toshikata Mizuno and Toshihide Migita.

More Information
Print FormatOban (Vertical)
ArtistYoshitoshi Tsukioka (1839 - 1892)
SubjectSamurai & Male
Size24.8 x 36.8 cm
Condition ReportSome pinholes and stains. Some purple pigment smudges.