Yoshitoshi Tsukioka, The Fox-Woman Kuzunoha, New Forms of Thirty-six Ghosts


Original Japanese woodblock print.

Yoshitoshi Tsukioka, The Fox-Woman Kuzunoha, New Forms of Thirty-six Ghosts, fox, kitsune, youkai, japanese woodblock print
Yoshitoshi Tsukioka, The Fox-Woman Kuzunoha, New Forms of Thirty-six Ghosts, fox, kitsune, youkai, japanese woodblock print Yoshitoshi Tsukioka, The Fox-Woman Kuzunoha, New Forms of Thirty-six Ghosts, fox, kitsune, youkai, japanese woodblock print

Artist: Yoshitoshi Tsukioka (1839-1892)
Title: The Fox-Woman Kuzunoha Leaving Her Child
Series: New Forms of Thirty-six Ghosts
Publisher: Sasaki Toyokichi
Date: 1890
Size: 35.2 x 23.8 cm
Condition report: Trimmed, minor stains and spots, red pigment slightly smudged, restored on the left of the back.


A little boy tugs at the kimono of his fleeing mother, her mysteriously shaped face casts a shadow on the translucent paper of the sliding screens.


The woman is, in fact, is a fox (kitsune), a magical creature that can take the shape of a human being. She was once saved by the nobleman Abe no Yasuna when a group of men hunted the fox for her liver. Abe swiftly hid the creature in his robes and the group of chasers rushed on. Shortly after, Abe married a young woman named Kuzunoha. They had a child together and lived happily for three years. However, she suddenly disappeared from the palace, later appearing in a dream of Abe to tell him not to mourn her as she was not a human, but the fox he saved.


The poem she left to her husband reads:
'If you think of me with love
come seek me in the forest of Shinoda
and you will find a kudzu leaf (lit. kuzu-no-ha, a pun on her name)'


The true form of Kuzunoha appears in the shadow on the sliding door. It was thought that reflections and shadows reveal the true form of supernatural beings pretending to be human. Unable to stay with her loved ones, she leaves her child behind in order to return to her natural habitat - the forest.

Yoshitoshi Tsukioka

Yoshitoshi Tsukioka was one of the leading woodblock print artists during the Meiji era (1868-1912) and one of the last to work in the traditional ukiyo-e manner. Born in Edo (today’s Tokyo), he showed a strong interest in classical Japanese literature and history. When he was 11, he became a student at Kuniyoshi Utagawa’s studio. Under his teacher’s guidance, he showed exquisite draftsmanship and learned how to draw from life, something not necessarily part of the training schools of painting and illustration in Japan.

Yoshitoshi’s rise as an artist came at a time when Japan was faced with great changes and challenges. The new Meiji era (1868-1912) brought many conflicts between those loyal to tradition and those wishing to embark on a process of forced modernisation and adoption of western values. These sentiments, along with having witnessed some of the violent uprisings, influenced his early career, with intense, often disturbing images that reflect turmoil and pain. Even so, many other prints from this early period show whimsical touches, with reinterpretation of themes seen in his teacher Kuniyoshi’s works. With deep cultural roots, Yoshitoshi’s style was dynamic and distinctive: he was known for experimentation in style and genre, as well as for his innovative works. He worked on series depicting kabuki actors, bijinga (pictures of beautiful women), warriors, monsters and ghosts. Supernatural themes abound in his later work, showing a fascination for old Japanese folk stories.

The publishing of Yoshitoshi’s most popular series 'One Hundred Aspects of the Moon' commenced in 1885 and spanned a wide variety of subjects, such as warrior, animals, ghosts, natural phenomena, beauties and others. The artist’s early tendency for gore and horror was replaced by images of lyricism, calm, spirituality and psychological depth. 'Thirty-two Aspects of Customs and Manners', published in 1888, shows Yoshitoshi’s ability to portray emotions like no other artist of his time, presenting women of various background and eras in Japanese history, each with distinct traits.

In 1889, the series 'New Forms of Thirty-six Ghosts' started to be published, showing images of apparitions, mostly based on folklore and plays, depicted powerfully and imaginatively. This was, perhaps, a catharsis for the artist who claimed to have seen ghosts and strongly believed in supernatural beings. Many of Yoshitoshi’s late works were acclaimed at a time when western techniques of mass production such as photography were making the woodblock obsolete, breaking new ground by portraying intense human feelings through a traditional medium. He became a master teacher and had notable pupils such as Toshikata Mizuno and Toshihide Migita.

More Information
Print FormatOban (Vertical)
ArtistYoshitoshi Tsukioka
SubjectBeauty & Female, Ghosts & Religion
Dimensions35.2 x 23.8 cm
SeriesNew Forms of Thirty-six Ghosts
PublisherSasaki Toyokichi
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