Kuniyoshi, Oribe Yahei Kanemaru, Faithful Samurai
Artist: Kuniyoshi Utagawa (1798-1861)
Title: 21. Oribe Yahei Kanemaru
Series: Stories of the True Loyalty of the Faithful Samurai
Publisher: Ebiya Rinnosuke
Original Japanese woodblock print.
Yahei, a veteran warrior, is cloaked in the rōnin's dog tooth robe and wields a spear in preparation for battle. Despite being seventy-eight years old, the warrior joins the other forty six rōnin on the attack of the Moronao mansion. A complete warrior at heart, Yahei was still greatly excited to hear of the exploits and battles of the younger samurai around him. But upon hearing of his lord's death at the cruel tactics of his enemy Moronao, Yahei readied himself along with the other faithful retainers to avenge their master. Japan was a feudal society during the Edo period (1603-1868) and was strongly conditioned by Confucian morals and philosophy. Such dedication to one's master, who was essentially a great father figure, was an action that could be considered correct or courageous, despite deviations from the law. During the attack, Yahei fought beside his son, using his experience with the spear to fell his enemies; this innocuous portrait belying his years of tested warfare.
Kuniyoshi Utagawa can without a doubt be considered the master of the warrior print genre. Born in Edo (today’s Tokyo) as the son of a silk-dyer, he had first-hand experience that later influenced the rich use of colour and textile patterns in his prints. His early talent and his drawings impressed the ukiyo-e print master Toyokuni I Utagawa and he was officially admitted to his studio in 1811, becoming one of his chief pupils. He remained an apprentice until 1814, at which time he was given the name ‘Kuniyoshi’ and set out as an independent artist.
His break-through came in 1827 with the series of ‘The 108 Heroes of The Tale of Suikoden’, which is based on a Chinese novel of the same name from the 14th century. It contains tales of about 108 rebels and heroic bandits that were very popular in Japan during Kuniyoshi’s lifetime, as their strong feelings of justice resonated with the Edo public with limited freedom and under strict government laws. A series of reforms in the 1840s banned the illustration of courtesans and kabuki actors in ukiyo-e. The government-created limitations became a kind of artistic challenge which actually encouraged Kuniyoshi's creativity by forcing him to find ways to veil criticism of the government allegorically. He also played a major role in tattoo designs in woodblock prints, with many of his works still being a source of inspiration for contemporary tattoo artists.
The warriors and heroes Kuniyoshi continuously designed were extremely popular and gave the artist the nickname of ‘Kuniyoshi of Warrior Prints’. Dynamic bodies and stern expressions were characteristic to his warriors, lending them a powerful and strong look. The commercial success of his warriors gave Kuniyoshi the freedom to explore other subjects of ukiyo-e, such as animals, birds, flowers, beautiful women, monsters and ghosts. His compositions are replete with humour and often involve witty wordplay. His most spectacular triptychs of warriors resonate even in contemporary culture, with influence in modern graphic media such as manga. His most famous designs include ‘The Ghosts of Taira Attack Yoshitsune at Daimotsu Bay’ and ‘Princess Takiyasha Summons a Skeleton Spectre to Frighten Mitsukuni’.
Kuniyoshi was an excellent teacher and had numerous pupils who continued his branch of the Utagawa school. Among the most notable were Yoshitoshi, Yoshitora, Yoshiiku, Yoshikazu, Yoshitsuya, and Yoshifuji. As they became established as independent artists, many went on to develop highly innovative styles of their own.
|Print Format||Oban (Vertical)|
|Subject||Male & Female|
|Dimensions||36.6 x 25.4 cm|
|Condition Report||Minor restorations, light creasing, minor wormholes.|
|Series||The Faithful Samurai|