Kuniyoshi Utagawa, 108 Heroes of Suikoden, Kumonryu Shishin, Tattoo Design
Artist: Kuniyoshi Utagawa (1797-1861)
Title: Kumonryu Shishin and Chokanko Chintatsu
Series: One Hundred and Eight Heroes of the Popular Suikoden
Publisher: Kagaya Kichibei
Date: c. 1828
Size: 26 x 36.6 cm
Original Japanese woodblock print.
Kuniyoshi's commercial and artistic success came in 1827 with the series 'One Hundred and Eight Heroes of the Popular Suikoden'. He revisited the theme of the bandits many times over the course of his career.
Suikoden (Water Margin) is a 14th century Chinese novel about 108 rebels and heroic bandits, very popular in Japan in the Edo period. The characters were also outlaws and brigands, seen as men of honour who would rebel against bureaucracy, a Robin-Hood-like band that made the story of a revolutionary novel with implications resenting the authority of the time. Many Japanese novels imitating the Suikoden were dramatised as Kabuki plays or were portrayed in woodblock prints.
A gang of robbers, whose leaders greatly feared Shishin because of his enormous strength, resided on the mountain near Shishin's home village. One day, however, one of the three robber leaders, Chokanko Chintatsu, is feeling reckless and challenges Shishin to a fight. Both men struggle at length, but eventually Shishin is victorious and Chintatsu is taken prisoner.
|Print Format||Oban (Vertical)|
|Artist Name||Kuniyoshi Utagawa|
|Title||Kumonryu Shishin and Chokanko Chintatsu|
|Subject||Samurai & Male, Tattoo Design|
|Dimensions||26 x 36.6 cm|
|Condition Report||Creases throughout. Discolouration. Wear on the right-hand side margin.|
|Series||One Hundred Eight Heroes of the Popular Suikoden|
Kuniyoshi Utagawa can without a doubt be considered the master of the warrior print genre. Born in Edo (today’s Tokyo) as the son of a silk-dyer, he had first-hand experience that later influenced the rich use of colour and textile patterns in his prints. His early talent and his drawings impressed the ukiyo-e print master Toyokuni I Utagawa and he was officially admitted to his studio in 1811, becoming one of his chief pupils. He remained an apprentice until 1814, at which time he was given the name ‘Kuniyoshi’ and set out as an independent artist.
His break-through came in 1827 with the series of ‘The 108 Heroes of The Tale of Suikoden’, which is based on a Chinese novel of the same name from the 14th century. It contains tales of about 108 rebels and heroic bandits that were very popular in Japan during Kuniyoshi’s lifetime, as their strong feelings of justice resonated with the Edo public with limited freedom and under strict government laws. A series of reforms in the 1840s banned the illustration of courtesans and kabuki actors in ukiyo-e. The government-created limitations became a kind of artistic challenge which actually encouraged Kuniyoshi's creativity by forcing him to find ways to veil criticism of the government allegorically. He also played a major role in tattoo designs in woodblock prints, with many of his works still being a source of inspiration for contemporary tattoo artists.
The warriors and heroes Kuniyoshi continuously designed were extremely popular and gave the artist the nickname of ‘Kuniyoshi of Warrior Print’. Dynamic bodies and stern expressions were characteristic to his warriors, lending them a powerful and strong look. The commercial success of his warriors gave Kuniyoshi the freedom to explore other subjects of ukiyo-e, such as animals, birds, flowers, beautiful women, monsters and ghosts. His compositions are replete with humour and often involve witty wordplay. His most spectacular triptychs of warriors resonate even in contemporary culture, with influence in modern graphic media such as manga. His most famous designs include ‘The Ghosts of Taira Attack Yoshitsune at Daimotsu Bay’ and ‘Princess Takiyasha Summons a Skeleton Spectre to Frighten Mitsukuni’.
Kuniyoshi was an excellent teacher and had numerous pupils who continued his branch of the Utagawa school. Among the most notable were Yoshitoshi, Yoshitora, Yoshiiku, Yoshikazu, Yoshitsuya, and Yoshifuji. As they became established as independent artists, many went on to develop highly innovative styles of their own.