Toyokuni III Utagawa, Kabuki Actors as Suikoden Heroes, Tattoo Design


Artist: Toyokuni III Utagawa (1786-1865)
Title: Kabuki Actors as Suikoden Heroes. Toyokuni's One in a Lifetime Suikoden.
Publisher: Otaya Takichi
Date: 1863
Size: (L)36.3 x 25.5 (C)36.0 x 24.9 (R)36.3 x 24.7 cm

Original Japanese woodblock print.

Suikoden (Water Margin) is a 14th century Chinese novel about 108 rebels and heroic bandits, very popular in Japan those days. The characters were also outlaws and brigands, seen as men of honour who would rebel against bureaucracy, a Robin-Hood-like band that made the story of a revolutionary novel with implications resenting the authority of the time. Many Japanese novels imitating the Suikoden were dramatised as Kabuki plays. Here, Kunisada has depicted ten major Kabuki actors in roles from a play by Yagura Suikoden. They all show popular designs popular with traditional tattoo enthusiasts, from maple leaves, cherry blossoms and peonies, to mythical creatures such as dragons and shishi (Chinese guardian lions).

Toyokuni III Utagawa (Kunisada I)

Kunisada I Utagawa was a prolific woodblock print artist mostly known for his pictures of beautiful women (bijinga) and kabuki actors prints (yakusha-e). Born in Edo (today’s Tokyo), he became a pupil of Toyokuni I Utagawa (1769-1825) at the age of 15 and would later adopt his name in the traditional Japanese manner, becoming Toyokuni III and continuing the development of the Utagawa art school.

Kunisada’s pictures reflect the culture of Japan in the years leading up to the country’s opening to the West. His first book illustrations were published in 1807 and his first actor portrait the following year. Alongside theatrical scenes and courtesans, yakusha-e was his preferred genre amidst all his popular and extensive output. As he painted a large number of these, continuing the stout realism of his teacher, he acquired the nickname ‘Yakusha-e no Kunisada’ – Kunisada, the actor painter. In his numerous bijinga he clung to the ideal of beauty prevalent at the time. Most of the women portrayed were courtesans from Yoshiwara, the regulated red-light district of the city.

In 1820s Kunisada joined author Ryutei Tanehiko (1783-1842) to work on illustrating a series of books based on the classical novel ‘The Tale of Genji’, the reinterpreted story having been relocated from the old capital of Kyoto to the new audience in Edo. The work started a new ukiyo-e genre, genji-e, and proved an overnight success, becoming the first Japanese publication to sell over 10,000 copies, a record which stood for many years.

Kunisada gave his audience an escape from the restrictions of their ordinary lives and his designs, with their optimism and energy, still have the capacity today to attract and entertain. Notable students of Kunisada included Kunichika Toyohara, Sadahide Utagawa and Kunisada II Utagawa.

More Information
Print FormatTriptych
ArtistToyokuni III Utagawa (Kunisada I)
SubjectKabuki Theatre, Tattoo Design
Dimensions(L)36.3 x 25.5 (C)36.0 x 24.9 (R)36.3 x 24.7 cm
Condition ReportSlightly trimmed, slightly torn corners, binding folds, a tear along the fold on the right panel. Minor spots.
PublisherOtaya Takichi