Yoshitoshi Tsukioka, Iga no Tsubone, One Hundred Aspects of the Moon
Original Japanese woodblock print.
Artist: Yoshitoshi Tsukioka (1839 – 1892)
Title: Mount Yoshino Midnight-Moon, Iga no Tsubone
Series: Tsuki Hyakushi (One Hundred Aspects of the Moon)
Publisher: Akiyama Buemon
Dimensions: 36.6 x 25.0 cm
Condition: Some hinges remain due to the previous mounting, light restoration in the bottom corners, oxidised pigment on the lady's robe, minor crease.
One Hundred Aspects of the Moon is Yoshitoshi's one of the most popular series. It contains one hundred woodblock prints depicting various, unrelated figures from Japanese and Chinese culture, with the moon as its unifying theme.
The print depicts the ghost of Sasaki no Kiyotaka, who was forced to commit suicide by the Emperor Go-Daigo in Kyoto. His ill-considered political advice had led to the refuge of the Emperor to a temporary palace. Kiyotaka's ghost followed and terrorised the court-in-exile. The only one who dared to oppose him was fearless Iga no Tsubone. She was said to enable another escape of the Emperor by falling a tree to bridge a ravine. Here, she stands in front of the blue-lipped ghost, her long hair flowing in the fashion of the period. Determined enough, the court lady forces him to vanish forever.
|Print Format||Oban (Vertical)|
|Artist Name||Yoshitoshi Tsukioka|
|Title||Mount Yoshino Midnight-Moon, Iga no Tsubone|
|Subject||Beauty & Female, Male & Female, Ghosts & Religion|
|Dimensions||36.6 x 25.0 cm|
|Series||One Hundred Aspects of the Moon|
Yoshitoshi Tsukioka was one of the leading woodblock print artists during the Meiji era (1868-1912) and one of the last to work in the traditional ukiyo-e manner. Born in Edo (today’s Tokyo), he showed a strong interest in classical Japanese literature and history. When he was 11, he became a student at Kuniyoshi Utagawa’s studio. Under his teacher’s guidance, he showed exquisite draftsmanship and learned how to draw from life, something not necessarily part of the training schools of painting and illustration in Japan.
Yoshitoshi’s rise as an artist came at a time when Japan was faced with great changes and challenges. The new Meiji era (1868-1912) brought many conflicts between those loyal to tradition and those wishing to embark on a process of forced modernisation and adoption of western values. These sentiments, along with having witnessed some of the violent uprisings, influenced his early career, with intense, often disturbing images that reflect turmoil and pain. Even so, many other prints from this early period show whimsical touches, with reinterpretation of themes seen in his teacher Kuniyoshi’s works. With deep cultural roots, Yoshitoshi’s style was dynamic and distinctive: he was known for experimentation in style and genre, as well as for his innovative works. He worked on series depicting kabuki actors, bijinga (pictures of beautiful women), warriors, monsters and ghosts. Supernatural themes abound in his later work, showing a fascination for old Japanese folk stories.
The publishing of Yoshitoshi’s most popular series 'One Hundred Aspects of the Moon' commenced in 1885 and spanned a wide variety of subjects, such as warrior, animals, ghosts, natural phenomena, beauties and others. The artist’s early tendency for gore and horror was replaced by images of lyricism, calm, spirituality and psychological depth. 'Thirty-two Aspects of Customs and Manners', published in 1888, shows Yoshitoshi’s ability to portray emotions like no other artist of his time, presenting women of various background and eras in Japanese history, each with distinct traits.
In 1889, the series 'New Forms of Thirty-six Ghosts' started to be published, showing images of apparitions, mostly based on folklore and plays, depicted powerfully and imaginatively. This was, perhaps, a catharsis for the artist who claimed to have seen ghosts and strongly believed in supernatural beings. Many of Yoshitoshi’s late works were acclaimed at a time when western techniques of mass production such as photography were making the woodblock obsolete, breaking new ground by portraying intense human feelings through a traditional medium. He became a master teacher and had notable pupils such as Toshikata Mizuno and Toshihide Migita.